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Science and Technology

The Georgian era was a period of great scientific discovery and world exploration. D.G. Fahrenheit constructed the first mercury thermometer in 1714, and Swiss astronomer Anders Celsius invented the centigrade thermometer in 1742. Carl Linneaus, known as the "Father of Taxonomy", labored to classify species of plants and animals during this period. Other notable achievements of the era included the development of a vaccine against smallpox and a cure for scurvy; and inventions of the cotton gin, refracting telescope, telegraph, lithograph machine, hydraulic press, fire extinguisher, submarine, helicopter and steamboat.

During this period, advances in transportation allowed adventurers to discover and explore vast areas such as the Bering Strait, Antarctica, Tahiti, New Guinea, the Sahara Desert, the Aleutian Islands, and the Kermadec Islands. George Anson returned safely from his voyage around the world, and Sir Alexander Mackenzie completed the first successful journey across Canada. Toward the end of the period, William Clark and Meriwether Lewis began exploration of the Louisiana Purchase.